SPHENISCA PROVES DOMINANCE IN J51
Today is a great day for our great nation. After fighting the brave, brave warriors of J51, we have finally defeated them. The honorable men have elected to join our great empire. The battle was recorded by one of our very own scribes. Here's how it went down. 550 Spheniscan Men-at-Arms were sent to J51 in order to colonize another land. Instead, they are faced with thousands of enemies, ranging from soldiers to "corpse -------". The soldiers tactically retreat, realizing they would be better used in the battle to come. A few days later, the battle begun. 1900 Spearmen, 550 men at arms, 200 Longbow retinue, and 20 Horse Archers marched to j51 with limited supplies. The rest is told from our top reporter, Dan Priy:
THE BATTLE OF THE OKARRA STRAIT
The Spheniscan initial cavalry archer raids is reasonably ineffectual due to lacking numbers. The massed wall of spears and infantry advance headlong towards to Militia line, who are flanked by two companies of fierce tribal spearmen. The enemy sees the massed phalanx, and knows that it will crush the center if left unchecked. On the right flank, 450 Light Horsemen circle around the phalanx to attack its delicate rear under the able command of Hetman Okurz - a real brute. A smaller force of 50 Light Horsemen moves on the left flank to dislodge the minor irritant of horse archers. Marching from the far left, unchecked, is 450 tribal militia - the corpse fuckers.
The Spheniscan commander notes the enemies movements from the rear of his great phalanx. He knows that if he continues the assault on the center he will surely smash through, but the risk of encirclement will be high - the phalanx formation is susceptible to flanks attacks. Will he hold his nerve, or change his battle plan?
"Halt the Advance! Our weapons are of greater steel, as are our hearts. We shall hold here and protect every man against these uncultured motherfockin' heathen-loving barbarians. We shall form a table formation, with men-at-arms ready to clog any breach. We must protect our archers at all costs, for they are the only advantage we have. Send the horse archers ahead to keep peppering, but give them the orders to make sure no enemy comes within 15 meters of them. Once they run out of ammo, tell them to retreat to the table and join the lines." The Commander calls to every man in his great army, "Many of you will die today, but we shall gain monuments to this day, the day we proved Sphenisca's might. Remember J22!"
"REMEMBER J22!" Almost every man in the army calls out. The great formation halts and begins to quickly re-form into defensive formations - the sign of a professional army. The only problem is, yet again, the lack of supply. The archers have already spent most of their arrows, nullifying their impact. The table formation itself is strong, but lacks real maneuverability. The lack of supply again means that unless decisive action is taken they will not be able to hold forever.
The enemy forces are not strong enough to complete an envelopment of the Spheniscan forces, however they converge on the table from the Front, Left & Right Flank, leaving the chance of escape to the rear a possibility. Should the Spheniscan forces yet again retreat it will surely be a blow to morale. The Commander now realises his lack of supply is critical.
Suddenly, a carrier eagle delivers a message:
"Commander, this is your king. If you are able to hold out for 6 hours, I am sending 10 supply wagons filled to the brim with supplies."
The Commander shouts, elated, "Hold the lines men! We may still win this one!"
The hostile forces do not decide to charge down the Spheniscan forces are they re-adjust their position, Hetman Okurz statting that is "Rude to interrupt your enemy while he is making a state. He sits astride his great war horse, observing the Spheniscan maneuvering. "See that they lack supplies? Their arrows will not harm us here be sure of it. But still, we must dislodge them from our land! Curse these infidels!"
The Light Horsemen on the right flank advance at a canter, skirting by the spear walls - Okurz is testing the Spheniscan forces.
"See! Don't you see I am right? They have no arrows left! Rider - deliver this message to Hetman Boldun at the center and then on to the far left to Chief Wargurz. They are to advance at once!" The rider nods in affirmation, then sets off the battlefield on his pony. Okurz sits back in his horse confidently, a great smile on his face.
The center of the enemy forces, 2000 Milita and 500 Spears advance quickly towards the front of the Spheniscan front liner, before breaking into a final charge just 20 meters away from their target. The two forces collide with bone-cracking impact, spears splintering, shields cracking and men dying. The attackers suffer great losses and many grievious wounds, but they are fierce warriors and start to slowly push the spears back. The enemy spearmen jab forwards to the extreme of both flanks, penning the defenders ever closer together. The Spheniscan commander draws his great longsword, and at the head of 200 Men-at-Arms sallies forth, plugging a small gap that had emerged "Men, to arms! Kill these dogs!" buoyed by their commander, the Men-at-Arms engage in brutal hand-to-hand combat, stopping the enemy from pressing any advantage. Several hundred militia are routed, but before anymore can be routed, a quick spear thrust to the jugular mortally wounds the Spheniscan commander, who swiftly drowns in a pool of his own blood. The battle of the front flank ebbs and flows, with neither side able to make significant tactical advantage. The Spheniscan second-in-command, himself caked in blood and offal, breaks away from the frontline to survey the field, just as the enemy Light Horsemen engage on his right flank!
Hetman Okurz, seeing that the battle for the front is in the balance, and observing several hundred militia fleeing across the field decides to engage. He orders 450 Light Horsemen under his personal command to attack, drawing his great scimitar and lowering his armored visor. "Charge! Hiy-eeeeeeh! Hiy-eeeeeeeh!" The horsemen hit the spearmen full tilt, horses and men flying through the air, spears and swords thudding with the almighty impact. They are lightly armored and the spearmen wreak a hefty toll on them, but in return they start to roll up the Spheniscan right flank. With two sides now engaged, the third side, the left flank of the Spheniscan force prepares for the onslaught of the "corpse fuckers".
Okurz still lives, slicing at anything that moves. He senses a great victory is close, the right flank is being rolled up and the center is being pushed fiercly. Now, he thinks, now the left flank must engage. Victory is in our grasp!
But Okurz is to be disapointed. The "corpse fuckers" have halted their advance. They are cowardly folk, for all their heinous acts and do not fancy dying today. Besides, there are plenty of good looking corpses alreadt - they aren't picky about which side the corpse fought for. They have stopped to fuck corpses that were killed in the initial flurry of arrows. The 50 horsemen sent by Okurz to assist them are incensed, drawing their swords on the corpse fuckers, and a mass brawl breaks out. The new Spheniscan commander, buoyed by the actions of the enemy is quick to act, moving his men from the rear and left flank to reinforce the center and right.
"Damn those men! They have spoiled my great victory" cries Okurz, as he slices through a spearmans skull, brains splattering across his visor. "Fall back men! Back! Do not run, dogs! You have not lost this day!" The message get through to the frontline, and the militia and spearmen pull back - the militia in general dissoray but the spearmen in reasonably good order. The Spheniscan forces are too spent to pursue their advantage. They will remain here and hold the field until supply and reinforcements can make it through.
The Battered Spheniscan force, missing their brave commander and mourning their brothers, is sitting in the field. Suddenly, a great commotion is heard. 10 Supply Wagons, filled to the brim with weapons, armor, food, and basic medicine, appear over the horizon. A new commander, straight from the Capital itself is with them. There is hope yet!
"Hurrah! Hurrah! We are saved. The men's spirits are raised. The army is rejuvenated and begins preparations to advance in an open march formation. The new commander is well received, considered one of the finest in the Spheniscan army.
A horn bellows out from beyond a small hillock near the right flank of the army. The commander immediately orders a halt and to take defensive positions where they stand, fearing an ambush. A small troop of armored warriors on horseback, under a white banner ride towards the commander's position.
"Keep your wits about you men, it could be a heathen trick. But stay your weapons for now. You men, with me, now. Hyaah" the commander sets out with his personal bodyguard towards the small troop. They both meet in the middle of the field, staying on their horses.
"My name is Hetman Okurz, commander in chief of the Ferenci Army. You have come to my lands and seek to take what is not yours. Many of you have died by my sword alone. My men had you beaten on the field, but for those mongrel dogs who desecrate the dead. We understand your quarrel with them - we now share it. Your leader fell in battle, and honourable noble death, as good as any great warrior can hope. We no longer wish to fight. My men are spent. In the night we hunted down those damned corpse molesters and made great sport of them. We have taken, their leaders" Orkurz makes a gesture with his hand and points back across the plain. 10 men stand there, bloody and naked bound by ropes "they are yours, if you would will it?" The Sphensican Commander sits steady and sullen in his horse. "We make this proposal to you. You have proven yourselves noble warriors, which I respect. Will you allow us to join your horde? We are worthy soldiers as we have proven on the field. We see your supply train, we see your leaders riches, and we think that is something we would like. We seek blood, gold and glory. Be damned man, have ye no tongue? What say you?"
"You would do me and my soldiers a great honor if you and your shoulders would join our army," The commander replies. "However, I cannot accept. Instead I offer you this. Take all your dead, and wounded, and bring them back to our Capital. There, they shall get the finest treatment, and your dead shall get a soldier's burial. You may live in Sphenisca on a reserve soldier's pay, or you may join me as we co-command the entire Spheniscan army, or you may be assigned as the governor of this land. As the king, I have the power to do any of this that you wish. What say you, honorable soldier?"
"I am surprised by your generosity, after all I had heard of such brutality. I have lived in these lands many long years, so I will accept the governorship of my homeland."
The King was not available for comment.
The Spheniscan Ballbase League played again this Sunday, with a shocking upset by the Sea Lions! The Sea Lions, a team that only has 2 wins this season, beat the undefeated Cubs! The Cubs coach said this " "t's not going to be an oil painting every night. You cannot be perfect." said Maddon Joe. Fans were not too upset, as their 2 star players are coming back next week. The Cubs are the clear favorite to win the championship so far this season.
The Penguins set a new record for runs scored in a game after 3 Grand Slams totaling 18 runs. The previous record was set last week, when the Cubs scored 17 runs against the Otters.
League Scores: Sea Lions: 2, Cubs: 1
Otters: 5, Sea Horses: 2
Sharks: 5, Penguins: 18
Hawks: 6, Eagles: 7
Sparrows: 5, Finches: 6
The Knights Radiant:
1. Cubs 18-1
2. Otters 12-7
3. Sharks 6-13
4. Finches 5-14
5. Sea Lions 2-17
1. Penguins 16-3
2. Hawks- 15-4
3. Eagles 13-6
4. Sea Horses: 6-13
5. Sparrows- 1-18
With the Midterm elections coming up, the gubernatorial elections seem like a landslide victory for all of the seated governors.
Opinion Article: What Makes a Succesful Autocracy
By Solaire Astoria
Autocracy (au-toc-ra-cy, aw-tok-ruh-see) is defined as a system of government by one person with absolute power. Modes of government that fall under autocracy include despotism, monarchism and fascism. These governments are defined by their leader, some famous examples include: the first French Empire, the Roman Empire, Nazi Germany and almost all kingdoms in the middle ages. Many of these governments did not have any regard for ethics or human life at all, but many were benevolent and kind to their subjects. Inspiring fear is proven to be a more effective method of gaining loyalty than to be loved, as asserted by Niccolo Machiavelli with his infamous quote “it is better to be feared than to be loved, if you cannot be both”. This concept was put into practice by Vladimir Lenin with his routine massacres and routine torture strikes made Russian citizens live with dread, and to get on the communists’ good side, citizens would act favourably towards them. The same is attributed to Ivan the fearsome and many other notable figures.
An autocratic government’s defining characteristic is that all power is given to one person, or body of people in some cases, but amongst those people there is always a leader of which is given the raw and absolute power to overturn any decision, or flat out make decisions themselves for what they think would be good for what they rule over. There are ‘pillars’ which make an autocracy successful by ‘holding up’ the government, in essence to prevent collapse. In the simplest terms, this basic system of government can be one of the most effective if it follows the principle of these pillars.
The first pillar that creates a successful autocracy is an idea that people can get behind. Ideology is the most important factor, as without an idea there is no movement, and without a movement there will not be an autocracy. The National Socialist German Workers Party convinced the masses that by their rule, they would end poverty and create a utopia from hard work and government oversight. The National Socialist government allocated work including road building and railway work for those without the ability to find work themselves. Due to the social crisis at the time, being mass unemployment, government job allocation for every citizen seemed like a godsend, so the party quickly rose to power.
Which leads to the second pillar – social conditions. Autocratic governments usually if not always have extreme methods to wipe out negative social situations which include unemployment, social injustice, political dissolution and high inflation. These governments tend to tap into patriotism and nationalism, and have charismatic leaders. The reason behind the nationalism is that it’s something all citizens of the country can tap into and relate to, and it creates a proud environment. It’s also a political tactic to tell citizens that other political leaders do not have the country's citizens’ needs at the heart of their policy, choosing instead to do the bidding of the rich and the powerful. Autocratic governments require a strong willed central figure which people can relate to. These strong willed leaders have a large influence in politics and can create the change which the people desire. If an autocratic hopeful is a weak-willed or insecure leader, it inspires nervousness in the populace, which in turn creates unrest and diminishes confidence in the government’s ability – which may end in a reelection.
Which ties into the third pillar – action. Many governments fail – autocratic or not – because they fail to create change in the infrastructure of the body over which they rule. This is where the famous phrase “politicians always make false promises” comes from. Where autocratic governments with strong leaders would create change almost immediately after they gain power, other government types are inconvenienced, sometimes majorly, by attempted power grabs and disharmony amongst the party, the prime example of this is the death of Julius Caesar. Not only that, sometimes the party fails to have a consensus on major issues, and those problems remain unsolved. It is with that that many citizens grow disgruntled with the government. Autocratic governments also have the ability to create a boom in economy, yet also have the ability to create grand disasters, whereas their democratic counterparts are more stable in comparison.An example of this is Chairman Mao’s great famine in China, leaving millions dead.
This directly corresponds to the fourth pillar – unity. A successful autocracy must be unified in a cause, and have the ability to solve major issues without faltering. Any team, whether it be sports, corporations or governments have to have strong chemistry to be able to react quickly whilst also being effective. Unity can also be tied in with the first pillar, ideology, however unity amongst people who share the same ideas can be difficult. Take the Christian religion for example - all followers of Christ believe he is the son of God and that he is holy, however, followers create discord over how each of his teachings are interpreted, and all sects have different methods of worship. The Roman Catholic Church has a similar hierarchy to an autocracy, in that the Pope is the voice of Catholics, and yet even amongst Catholics – let alone other sects – there is some element of disagreement with the Pope. The same is true amongst peoples political opinion, in that every person’s opinion on any issue differs from another’s, including the leaders.
People can create a psychological sense of unity through uniforms. Most uniforms nowadays are a three-piece suit, but a party may have a particular colour with which they identify with – communists are red, Nazis are brown and fascists are black, for example. Unification is paramount within an efficient autocracy, and uniformity helps alleviate some minor visionary problems within a government. Many militaries have a unique section of their uniform that differentiates them from other militaries, such as a coloured beret or a ceremonial blade that is tradition to carry into combat. In the Middle Ages, most armies used steel plate armour, which made it hard to identify friend from foe, so they used banners to identify where a unit is, and many armies had unique sections of armour which could allow soldiers to differentiate each other. These could include a helmet which has a cross visor, or sections of fur or leather in certain spots in the armour.
Earning these uniforms required dedication, training, and most importantly – discipline. Every member on the autocratic hierarchy must have extreme discipline to be able to make hard decisions under pressure at the top, as well as being able to carry orders out with discretion and skill at the bottom. Having an undisciplined government, autocratic or not, is doomed to fail quickly. Having an undisciplined citizenship will allow for the swift collapse of an autocratic government as well.
However, discipline in the general populace is different altogether. Propaganda is used to keep the populace in aligned with the government's goals – if people are taught to think in the same fashion as the government, there wouldn’t be the need for revolt. Propaganda fits in the context of many of the pillars of autocracy including ideology, unity, discipline and control.
Making sure all subjects are disciplined requires control – the sixth pillar. Control is very unique to powerful authoritarian governments. Republics pride themselves on being free, despite not being as efficient as they could be under an autocratic leadership. However, subjects who feel that they lack personal freedom or control may start an uprising, or a total rebellion. Control can mean a variety of things depending on the government in question, however some common traits include an increase in police and police brutality. Citizens often forego civil liberties ‘for the cause’ as a result. Control also includes the abolition of labour unions, suppression of anti-government dogma, and protectionist policy on free trade.
To understand if citizens want to overthrow the government, surveillance is key, which in essence is the seventh pillar – surveillance. All successful governments have used spies to gain intelligence about other nations, and have used them to commit espionage and assassinations the world over. Autocratic governments use secret police to spy on their own people, and in the event of an uprising, to neutralise any major conspirators that have an influence over a revolution. Some major secret police forces include the Gestapo (Germany) and the Kremlin Guard Brigade (USSR), or the Cheka (early USSR). These secret police also take on the roles of spies as well, obtaining information about other nations militaries and leaders’ whereabouts, amongst other things.
With the populace under close surveillance at all times, the government now has complete control over the nation's well being. The autocracy is now totally liable for any problem that arises within their state. Maintaining the control of the autocracy is as simple as repeating the previous pillars. Key findings sought to examine the elements of a successful autocracy. These ‘pillars’ in order are:
Ideology – without a movement, there is no support to garner.
Social conditions – an autocracies initial popularity is due to the severity of the social conditions that they seek to eradicate.
Action – swift action creates a sense of positivity amongst the ruling body which increases chances of maintaining power (a given for any government).
Unity (and uniformity) – attempting to unify the ruled populace includes an overhaul of political opinion and dress code.
Discipline – all members of government must be trained and vigilant in order to retain a rational sense of duty, from the top level government all the way to the regular citizens.
Control – government requires an iron grip on the people to maintain their position in government.
Surveillance – to maintain control, an autocracy must weed out potential uprisings or revolutions from their core.
With this structure used by many successful autocracies in the past, it is discernible that any future autocracy would be using these pillars. To a further extent, a successful future autocracy would be maximising the usage of all of these pillars. It has also been proven that autocracies can be a more effective means of government than any other, if it is given the opportunity to do so.
Monument Review: Rome's Aqua Marcia
By Maximus Decimus.
Finally, what you have all been waiting for. A year of research has gone into this!
Aqua Marcia: The Largest Aqueduct
The Roman Aqueducts were some of the most sophisticated objects in the ancient world. Running water, sewage systems, and indoor plumbing this well built wasn’t surpassed until the modern era, showing a testament to these Roman buildings. These aqueducts, which are the most visible pieces of the Roman water system, stand as a paragon of the strength and beauty that is commonly associated with the Roman Empire.
Out of the 11 Aqueducts built, the Aqua Marcia was the largest. It spanned a length of over 91 km, and supplied the majority of water to Rome.
Aqua Marcia was built to supply water to Rome, as stated above. This aqueduct could bring approximately 190,000 m3 of water to Rome. The rmajority of the aqueduct was built underground (most likely for protection from invaders). Sponsored by praetor Quintus Marcius Rex,146 BC is when construction started. It was paid for by the spoils of the Third Punic War, as Rome had just conquered Corinth and Carthage had fallen in that same year. Construction was completed at 144 BC.
The Aqua Marcia, along with all the other aqueducts were built from a combination of stone, brick and a special volcanic cement, known as pozzuolana. The aqueducts were built with the trademark “Roman arch”, a structure that allowed for many things. This arch was the reason that these great structures were made, as it allowed an even weight distribution. Porous and brittle materials could be used as there was little chance of collapse.
For 90 years, the Aqua Appia and the Anio Vetus brought all the water to Rome. However, with the Second Punic Wars, most building projects in Rome had been put on hold. The Aqua Appia and the Anio Vetus had fallen into disrepair. When their was not enough water brought to the cities to fill the public fountain, private owners had their water supplies cut. Many projects had been approved to combat this issue, but Marcus Licinius Crassus would not allow anything to go across his property. Consequently, no new aqueducts were built for 30 years. The first new aqueduct was The Aqua Marcia. It was built from the source, which were a series of springs in the upper Anio valley. These are near the modern day towns of Arsoli and Agosta.
The Aqua Marcia has fared pretty well since the days of Rome. The underground sections are not viewable to the public, but the famous above ground aqueducts definitely are. The damage that they have taken is mostly due to invaders and nature, and very little to do with modern interference.
The Aqua Marcia is a beautiful structure and should be seen by all. This is not only because of its beauty, but also what this aqueduct symbolizes. It symbolizes an advancement in the human race. It originally was built by stone slabs and crude lime-stone mixtures. However, as Roman engineers learned more and more, they were able to create these huge, arching (insert rimshot here) structures. It is also an amazingly useful structure. Unlike the buildings of the Greeks, and even some buildings in Rome, this served a purpose. It carried clean water from hundreds of miles away to a city. It forged valleys, went through mountains, and crossed long plains to get to the city of Rome. It supplied the capital of one of the largest empires known to man, and simply advanced the human race exponentially. And, above all, it looked great while doing it.
Mars Est Deus (Latin):
Mā-rs est de-us.
Mā-rs Rhē-am Sil-vi-am a-mat.
Rhē-a Sil-vi-a du-ōs fī-li-ōs ha-bet: Rō-mu-lum et Re-mum.
A-mū-li-us Rhē-am Sil-vi-am vin-cu-līs clau-dit.
A-mū-li-us Rō-mu-lum et Re-mum in a-quam pō-nit. Lu-pa ad a-quam am-bu-lat.
Lu-pa Rō-mu-lum et Re-mum be-ne cū-rat et a-mat. Rō-mu-lus et Re-mus crēs-cunt.
Pos-te-ā Rō-mu-lus et Re-mus Rō-mam ae-di-fi-cant.
Cuando Era Nino (Spanish):
Cuando yo era un niño, estaba un bebé muy calmo. Cuando yo era un niño, no lloré o hablo mucho. También, yo estaba muy cerca con mi hermana. Mi hermana y yo hablamos (y todavía lo hacen) el uno al otro mucho. No luchamos mucho cuando yo era un niño. Cuando yo era un niño, mi hermana y yo jugaba juegos juntos. Cuando era un niño, iba a Mundo de Disney mucho. Yo iba mas o menos dos tiempos cada años entre de 2004-2010! Mi hermana y yo gustaba el Mundo de Disney mucho. Pero cuando mi hermana tenía trece años, ella decidió que ella no quería ir a Mundo de Disney. Yo decidí que me no quiero ir a Mundo de Disney también, y nuestro familia no iba por muchos años. En su lugar, mi familia fue a muchos otros lugares. Fuimos a Hawai, India, Europa y otros países. Cuando yo era un niño, me encantaba vestirse con trajes divertidos. Me encantaba vestirse como gente de Winnie the Pooh. También, yo gustaba caminaba en parques y jugaba juegos muy divertido.