I was really tempted to vote for the Macedonian Empire, because it is my favourite, and I know that it is the most apparently correlated to the modern world. However, I believe that the Babylonian Empire had more of an impact on humanity as a whole after deeper consideration. Firstly, it helped to establish one of the first large scale political systems that were successful. This was based upon the success of the Babylonian Alphabets creation, and its use in transferring knowledge across long distances. It also created the first real western religion, and most of the world is directly or indirectly impacted by that aspect of its development. It is also important to note how important the development of city-states has played throughout history, which first started under this empire, and the economic systems established. Finally, Babylon played a huge influence in developing many different forms of art and culture that shaped how the Macedonian and Roman Empires would establish later on. Babylon, in brief, I believe was the catalyst for western civilisation.